Saturday, November 23, 2019
How to Conjugate French Spelling-Change Verbs
How to Conjugate French Spelling-Change Verbs There are two groups of otherwise regular -er verbs that have spelling changes in certain conjugations due to hard and soft consonants and vowels. That is, they are conjugated like regular -er verbs, except for slight spelling variations in certain conjugations in order to maintain soft consonant sounds throughout. They are known as are spelling-change verbs. The Consequences of Orthography These orthographic changes occur because of how hard and soft letters affect pronunciation. The lettersÃ Ã a,Ã o, andÃ uÃ are sometimes calledÃ hard vowelsÃ whileÃ eÃ andÃ iÃ areÃ soft vowels.Ã Certain consonants (c,Ã g,Ã s) change pronunciation according to which vowel follows them. Place the soft vowels e or i after them, and they have a soft sound; place the sometimes hard vowels a, o and u after these consonants and you could get a hard-sounding consonant.Ã The spelling-change verbs follow these rules of orthography. Thus, wherever theÃ gÃ in -ger verbs is followed by a hard vowel like o, it changes to geÃ to keep the g soft, as in gel. InÃ -cerÃ verbs, wherever theÃ c is followed by a hard vowel, itÃ changes to Ã § to keep the c soft, as inÃ cell.Ã The Actual Changes: -cer Verbs Generally, for -cerÃ verbs, theÃ Ã c Ã § spelling change is found only in the imperative and theÃ nousÃ conjugation of the present tense:Ã lanÃ §ons.Ã It is also needed in theÃ present participle,Ã lanÃ §ant, but not theÃ past participle,Ã lancÃ ©. All verbs that end in -cer undergo this spelling change, including: Ã Ã Ã annoncerÃ to announceÃ Ã Ã avancerÃ Ã to advanceÃ Ã Ã commencerÃ Ã to beginÃ Ã Ã dÃ ©noncerÃ Ã to denounceÃ Ã Ã divorcerÃ Ã to divorceÃ Ã Ã effacerÃ Ã to eraseÃ Ã Ã lancerÃ Ã to throwÃ Ã Ã menacerÃ Ã to threatenÃ Ã Ã placerÃ Ã to putÃ Ã Ã prononcerÃ Ã to pronounceÃ Ã Ã remplaceÃ Ã to replaceÃ Ã Ã renoncerÃ Ã to renounce The Actual Changes: -ger Verbs For -gerÃ verbs,Ã theÃ g ge spelling change is likewise found only in the imperative and the present tenseÃ nousÃ conjugation:Ã mangeons.Ã It is needed in theÃ present participle,Ã mangeant, but not theÃ past participle,Ã mangÃ ©. All verbs that end in -ger undergo this spelling change, including: Ã Ã Ã arrangerÃ Ã to arrangeÃ Ã Ã bougerÃ Ã to moveÃ Ã Ã changerÃ Ã to changeÃ Ã Ã corrigerÃ Ã to correctÃ Ã Ã dÃ ©couragerÃ Ã to discourageÃ Ã Ã dÃ ©mÃ ©nagerÃ Ã to moveÃ Ã Ã dÃ ©rangerÃ Ã to disturbÃ Ã Ã dirigerÃ Ã to directÃ Ã Ã encouragerÃ Ã to encourageÃ Ã Ã engagerÃ Ã to bindÃ Ã Ã exigerÃ Ã to demandÃ Ã Ã jugerÃ Ã to judgeÃ Ã Ã logerÃ Ã to lodgeÃ Ã Ã mangerÃ Ã to eatÃ Ã Ã mÃ ©langerÃ Ã to mixÃ Ã Ã nagerÃ Ã to swimÃ Ã Ã obligerÃ Ã to obligeÃ Ã Ã partagerÃ Ã to shareÃ Ã Ã rÃ ©digerÃ Ã to writeÃ Ã Ã voyagerÃ Ã to travel For both types of spelling-change verbs, these slight changes also occur in the following tenses and moods: ImperfectÃ - singular conjugations plus the third person pluralPassÃ © simpleÃ - all conjugations except the third person pluralImperfect subjunctiveÃ - all conjugations For both, there is no spelling change in theÃ conditional,Ã future, orÃ subjunctive. See the Full Conjugations to Understand Check out the full conjugations of spelling-changeÃ -gerÃ verbsÃ andÃ -cerÃ verbsÃ for a global picture of how these small changes affect spelling. One caveat: Do not confuse spelling-change verbs withÃ stem-changing verbs. They are completely different, as their names indicate.